History of Educational Technology

There is no written evidence which can tell us exactly who has coined the phrase educational technology. Different educationists, scientists and philosophers at different time intervals have put forwarded different definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a multifaceted and integrated process involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, where technology from different fields of science is borrowed as per the need and requirement of education for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems involved in all aspects of human learning.Educational technology, broadly speaking, has passed through five stages.The first stage of educational technology is coupled with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and concrete materials. The term educational technology was used as synonyms to audio-visual aids.The second stage of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the introduction and establishment of sophisticated hardware and software. Use of various audio-visual aids like projector, magic lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a revolutionary change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology concept was taken in terms of these sophisticated instruments and equipments for effective presentation of instructional materials.The third stage of educational technology is linked with the development of mass media which in turn led to ‘communication revolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) used for education since 1950s also became popular during this era.The fourth stage of educational technology is discernible by the individualized process of instruction. The invention of programmed learning and programmed instruction provided a new dimension to educational technology. A system of self-learning based on self-instructional materials and teaching machines emerged.The latest concept of educational technology is influenced by the concept of system engineering or system approach which focuses on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a systematic way of designing, carrying out and evaluating the total process of teaching and learning in terms of specific objectives based on research.Educational technology during the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age
Educational technology, despite the uncertainty of the origin of the term, can be traced back to the time of the three-age system periodization of human prehistory; namely the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, and the Iron Age.Duringthe Stone Age, ignition of fire by rubbing stones, manufacture of various handmade weapon and utensils from stones and clothing practice were some of the simple technological developments of utmost importance. A fraction of Stone Age people developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe ship technology to migrate from one place to another across the Ocean, by which they developed their first informal education of knowledge of the ocean currents, weather conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and star maps. During the later Stone Age period (Neolithic period),for agricultural practice, polished stone tools were made from a variety of hard rocks largely by digging underground tunnels, which can be considered as the first steps in mining technology. The polished axes were so effective that even after appearance of bronze and iron; people used it for clearing forest and the establishment of crop farming.Although Stone Age cultures left no written records, but archaeological evidences proved their shift from nomadic life to agricultural settlement. Ancient tools conserved in different museums, cave paintings like Altamira Cave in Spain, and other prehistoric art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.Neolithic Revolution of Stone Age resulted into the appearance of Bronze Age with development of agriculture, animal domestication, and the adoption of permanent settlements. For these practices Bronze Age people further developed metal smelting, with copper and later bronze, an alloy of tin and copper, being the materials of their choice.The Iron Age people replaced bronze and developed the knowledge of iron smelting technology to lower the cost of living since iron utensils were stronger and cheaper than bronze equivalents. In many Eurasian cultures, the Iron Age was the last period before the development of written scripts.Educational technology during the period of Ancient civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systematized bodies of knowledge and ancient cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information. In every stage of human civilization, one can find an instructional technique or set of procedures intended to implement a particular culture which were also supported by number of investigations and evidences. The more advanced the culture, the more complex became the technology of instruction designed to reflect particular ways of individual and social behaviour intended to run an educated society. Over centuries, each significant shift in educational values, goals or objectives led to diverse technologies of instruction.The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the rise of the ancient civilizations. These advances stimulated and educated other societies in the world to adopt new ways of living and governance.The Indus Valley Civilization was an early Bronze Age civilization which was located in the northwestern region of the Indian Subcontinent. The civilization was primarily flourished around the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the part is under today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as well as some part of the civilization extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost part of Balochistan, Iran).There is a long term controversy to be sure about the language that the Harappan people spoke. It is assumed that their writing was at least seems to be or a pictographic script. The script appears to have had about 400 basic signs, with lots of variations. People write their script with the direction generally from right to left. Most of the writing was found on seals and sealings which were probably used in trade and official & administrative work.Harappan people had the knowledge of the measuring tools of length, mass, and time. They were the first in the world to develop a system of uniform weights and measures.In a study carried out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, published in Science, computer scientists found that the Indus script’s pattern is closer to that of spoken words, which supported the proposed hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the major techno-offerings from China include paper, early seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, iron plough, the multi-tube seed drill, the suspension bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the blast furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the invent of paper they have given their first step towards developments of educational technology by further culturing different handmade products of paper as means of visual aids.Ancient Egyptian language was at one point one of the longest surviving and used languages in the world. Their script was made up of pictures of the real things like birds, animals, different tools, etc. These pictures are popularly called hieroglyph. Their language was made up of above 500 hieroglyphs which are known as hieroglyphics. On the stone monuments or tombs which were discovered and rescued latter on provides the evidence of existence of many forms of artistic hieroglyphics in ancient Egypt.Educational technology during Medieval and Modern Period
Paper and the pulp papermaking process which was developed in China during the early 2nd century AD, was carried to the Middle East and was spread to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences support that a paper mill was also established in Sicily in the 12th century. The discovery of spinning wheel increased the productivity of thread making process to a great extent and when Lynn White added the spinning wheel with increasing supply of rags, this led to the production of cheap paper, which was a prime factor in the development of printing technology.The invention of the printing press was taken place in approximately 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The invention of printing press was a prime developmental factor in the history of educational technology to convey the instruction as per the need of the complex and advanced-technology cultured society.In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was simply the handwork at artisan level, the instructional processes were relied heavily upon simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was limited to a single text book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was considered synonymous to simple aids like charts and pictures.The year 1873 may be considered a landmark in the early history of technology of education or audio-visual education. An exhibition was held in Vienna at international level in which an American school won the admiration of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and other equipments.Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally renowned child educator and the originator of Montessori Method exerted a dynamic impact on educational technology through her development of graded materials designed to provide for the proper sequencing of subject matter for each individual learner. Modern educational technology suggests many extension of Montessori’s idea of prepared child centered environment.In1833, Charles Babbage’s design of a general purpose computing device laid the foundation of the modern computer and in 1943, the first computing machine as per hi design was constructed by International Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted instruction (CAI) in which the computer functions essentially as a tutor as well as the Talking Type writer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Since 1974, computers are interestingly used in education in schools, colleges and universities.In the beginning of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the field of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), right from its start of school broadcasts in 1920 had maintained rapid pace in making sound contribution to formal education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the provision for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were equipped with radios and there were regular daily programmes.Sidney L. Pressey, a psychologist of Ohio state university developed a self-teaching machine called ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his famous article ‘Science of Learning and art of Teaching’ published in 1945 pleaded for the application of the knowledge derived from behavioral psychology to classroom procedures and suggested automated teaching devices as means of doing so.Although the first practical use of Regular television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open circuit television began to be used primarily for broadcasting programmes for entertainment in 1950. Since 1960, television is used for educational purposes.In 1950, Brynmor, in England, used educational technological steps for the first time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a result of industrial revolution in America and Russia, other countries also started progressing in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the beginning of educational technology took place in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has reached England, Europe and India.During the time of around 1950s, new technocracy was turning it attraction to educations when there was a steep shortage of teachers in America and therefore an urgent need of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little later his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard introduced mass production technology in America.Team teaching had its origin in America in the mid of 1950’s and was first started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a part of internship plan.In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA introduced the taxonomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.In 1961, Micro teaching technique was first adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.Electronics is the main technology being developed in the beginning of 21st century. Broadband Internet access became popular and occupied almost all the important offices and educational places and even in common places in developed countries with the advantage of connecting home computers with music libraries and mobile phones.Today’s classroom is more likely to be a technology lab, a room with rows of students using internet connected or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or perhaps students are attending a video conferencing or virtual classroom or may have been listening to a podcast or taking in a video lecture. Rapid technological changes in the field of educational have created new ways to teach and to learn. Technological changes also motivated the teachers to access a variety of information on a global scale via the Internet, to enhance their lessons as well as to make them competent professional in their area of concern. At the same time, students can utilize vast resources of the Internet to enrich their learning experience to cope up with changing trend of the society. Now a days students as well teachers are attending seminars, conferences, workshops at national and international level by using the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they pursue a variety of important courses of their choice in distance mode via online learning ways. Online learning facility has opened infinite number of doors of opportunities for today’s learner to make their life happier than ever before.

Pennsylvania’s Proposed Health Insurance Reforms

Pennsylvania’s Governor Ed Rendell just introduced his program to reform the state’s health insurance. This proposed program is entitled Prescription for Pennsylvania. While it still needs to be approved by the legislature, it would definitely bring significant changes to health care in the state. Rendell’s overall goal is to provide health care to everyone, including about 767,000 PA residents who do not have any coverage. Below are some of the ways in which Rendell’s proposed plan will benefit residents of Pennsylvania.1. Affordable Insurance For AllA new program which is part of this “Prescription” is called CAP, which means “Covering All Pennsylvanians.” By this, the Governor intends to be able to bring affordable health insurance to everyone in the State, especially to those who make less than the State’s average income of $39,000. Two target areas that this program is looking to provide insurance for, are:Employed individuals who do not have health insurance
Small businesses owners who do not have health insurance2. Employed Individuals Who Do Not Have Health InsuranceGovernor Rendell’s own goal for those who are employed but have no insurance, but limited to those who make at least 300% of the poverty level of income, is to be able to provide health care coverage for around $280 per month. Apparently this is the actual cost of providing this policy that his counsel has determined. There are presently several insurance carriers offering health insurance http://www.benepath.com/> for this amount or less in Pennsylvania.3. Individual Health InsuranceGovernor Rendell’s goal for those who are employed but do not have insurance is limited to those who make at least 300% of the poverty level of income. The cost to provide health care coverage would be around $280 per month as this is the actual cost of providing a policy that his counsel determined. There are presently several insurance carriers offering health insurance http://www.benepath.com/> for this amount or less in Pennsylvania.4. Program Will Reduce Medical Costs To Make It More AffordableSeveral areas in the new Pennsylvania health insurance program are targeted in an effort to curb overgrown and unnecessary medical costs. These targeted areas will help reduce the billions of dollars spent each year and help to reduce the overall cost and make it affordable for nearly all. Here are some of the features that have been specifically mentioned in order to make it happen.A. Examination of Services Performed – Certain areas are being examined to potentially reduce current medical care costs such as reducing the length of hospital stays in order to prevent things like hospital infections. Another targeted problem will be those hospital stays that could have been prevented by better personal self-care or better physician services in the first place, such as treatment among people who have diabetes, asthma, and other various medical conditions. This also includes scaling back on certain procedures and tests that may be unnecessary.
B. Reduce Medical Costs By Enlarging Services. The annual cost of providing health care is billions of dollars. The Governor is looking to reduce this figure by cutting out unnecessary expenditures in order to lower costs of health insurance in Pennsylvania. By expanding medical facilities hours of operations to include evening hours and weekends, he believes there will be less of a need to use emergency rooms for everyday medical needs. Furthermore, Rendell hopes that by bringing everyone into the health insurance program, the overall costs of healthcare in Pennsylvania will decline.
C. Other Changes That Will Benefit Many – Other additional changes in the health insurance in PA program include:ยท Allowing Nurses To Perform More Services:Governor Rendell is proposing the use of medical attendants like nurses and possibly dental technicians in a wider capacity as they are trained to do more than they are generally permitted to do. For example, in a nurse-controlled medical facility, nurses may not be permitted to do things like stitching wounds, treating infected toenails, or removing moles, if these nurses were in a doctor-controlled facility, they would regularly perform these tasks. Costs will be reduced by allowing nurses to perform these medical treatments on a statewide basis, allowing doctors to perform functions that are targeted to their specialized training.Another example is the distribution of prescriptions during the birthing process. Many mid-wives and nurse practitioners already deliver as many as 10% of the babies in PA, and it seems like it should merely be the natural progression of their services into this arena, as well.Nurse care in such fields as has been mentioned here, and others, would reduce health insurance costs as nurses do not charge much as doctors do for their services.Reducing Costs Through Rebates:For those insurers that provide plans to small businesses, there may be a need to provide rebates. If an employer’s medical costs for their group plan uses less than 75% of the collected premiums, the insurer will need to provide a rebate to each of the employees. This will help keep costs down for employers – at least for those years where expenses are lower than expected.The question here is how do the insurers fund the claims for the groups whose claims exceed 200% or even 500% of their premiums?…if this is done on an overall loss ratio basis, it would be of great benefit to employers.With so many changes that will soon be effecting the health insurance in Pennsylvania in a positive way, it appears that many people will certainly be able to enjoy better healthcare. The Prescription for Pennsylvania may indeed be a real good thing, and only time will tell.

How To Find The Best Low Cost Health Insurance – Save More Money!

In any year the United States death rate for people who don’t have any health insurance is 30% higher than for people who do have insurance. Finding good low cost health insurance is a lot easier than most people think.Health insurance is simply the processing of medical claims against the actual medical costs. Low cost health insurance is readily available that is if you know where to and how to find it. There are a lot of different features to choose from in the health insurance plans and policies in the marketplace today in the United States.Most every other country in the civilized world insures the health of all of its peoples. Although we spend billions of dollars every year, there are 54 million people who don’t have any insurance at all. Although it may increase your risk, one good way to lower your costs is to ask for a higher deductible. If your health is good you’ll come out ahead, that is if there are no emergencies or accidents.You can get help easily from the online insurance agents just as you would local agents. They can help submit the proper forms and claims for health insurance you don’t have to have a local agent do it. The insurance agents who are not online can only quote from the companies they handle.In the future if your physician decides that you have a medical necessity and it’s not covered under your policy, the insurance company can decide whether they will pay for it or not. But in most cases it’s like pulling teeth.The insurance agents who are not online may be restricted and cannot offer you what you need that fits your budget and your health needs. Finding the best health insurance today is really faster and easier than ever to do online. A major advantage of purchasing health insurance online is the fact that you can save a lot of time and easily change your deductibles, coverage or payment options instead of going through a local insurance agent.A simple fact is that as you get older your health insurance policy becomes more important. Of course you should be just as concerned about having health insurance when you’re younger.If you get insurance and get in a bind you can easily charge your payments to a credit card if you have online insurance. This means you’re not likely to neither forget making a payment nor ever be without your insurance. It gives you another thirty days before you actually have to pay your premium. You can save even more because most insurance companies will give you an additional discount for automatic payments on your credit card also.For individuals who don’t have any pre-existing medical conditions, a standard health insurance plan with a higher deductible may be the best decision. Make sure to go over the policy and eliminate any extras you don’t need such as maternity care.Getting cheap or low cost health insurance means you will pay a lower price and sometimes get lower quality, but for some people the price may be the deciding factor rather than the quality of the health plan. With a bit of work and research you can easily get the lowest cost insurance available.There are many different types of plans so make sure you get an understanding of all the low cost health insurance policies that are available. Compare all the features to ensure you get the best deal. Some websites are set up in such a way to let you get several free quotes with one inquiry. This makes it fast and easy to compare rates to ensure that you’re getting the best deal possible.